Bloodborne HIV: Don't Get Stuck!

Protect yourself from bloodborne HIV during healthcare and cosmetic services

Additional Resources

Surveys of healthcare facilities

Service Provision Assessments for Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia are available from ORC Macro at: (accessed 8 January 2011)

 HIV survival outside the body

 Abdala N, Stephens PC, Griffith BP, Heimer R. Survival of HIV-1 in syringes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999, 20, 73-80.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings. MMWR 1987; 36 (suppl 2). Available at: (accessed 11 January 2011).

Heimer R, Abdala N. Viability of HIV-1 in syringes; implications for interventions among injection drug users. AIDS Reader 2000; 10: 410-417.

Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6: 130. Available at: (accessed 7 January 2011).

Resnick L, Veren K, Salahuddin Z, Tondreau S, Markham PD. Stability and inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV under clinical and laboratory environments. JAMA 1986; 255: 1887-1891.

Sattar SA, Springthorpe VS. Survival and disinfectant inactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus: a critical review. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 13: 430-447.

Standard precautions, disinfecting, sterilizing

Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Atlanta: CDC, 2008. Available at: (accessed 11 January 2011). Pages 83-93 provide detailed guidelines for sterilization and high-level chemical disinfection.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2004. Available at: (accessed 11 Janaury 2011). See also the parent website for this chapter, organizaed by the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: (accessed 11 January 2011).

Sopwith W, Hart T, Garner P. Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2002; 2: 4. Available from: Accessed 9 July 2011.

Tearfund. AIDS update. Available at: Accessed 9 July 2011.

WHO Regional Office for South East Asia/WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Practical Guidelines for Infection Control in Health Care Facilities, SEARO Regional Publication No. 41, WPRO Regional Publication. Geneva: WHO, 2004. Available at: (accessed 11 January 2011). Pages 27-37 deal with sterilization of reused instruments.

WHO. Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a practical guide, 2nd edition, doc no. WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH/2002.12 Geneva: WHO, 2002. Available at:  (accessed 11 January 2011). See especially page 35 for summary information on sterilizing and disinfecting instruments.

 Standard precautions during home care

 WHO. Palliative Care: symptom management and end-of-life care. Geneva: WHO, 2004. Available at: (accessed 9 July 2011).

Human rights and HIV/AIDS

Eric Friedman. HIV Transmission in Health Care Settings: A White Paper by Physicians for Human Rights. Washington DC: Physicians for Human Rights USA, 2003. Available at: Accessed 22 August 2005.

HIV/AIDS epidemics by country

Reports from national surveys are available from ORC Macro at: (accessed 8 January 2011). As of early 2011, survey results are available for: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Ethiopian, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Injection Safety Videos

Two videos from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on injection safety and distinguishing single and multidose vials.

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