Unexpected HIV infections in children:
1986-89: Tests of inpatient and outpatient children at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu during 1989-96 found 83 HIV-positive children. The study team considered it had sufficient information to determine the mode of transmission for 39 children aged 0-14 years: 13 had HIV-positive mothers, and 26 had a history of blood transfusion. Source: Emodi IJ, Okafor GO. Clinical manifestations of HIV in children at Enugu, Nigeria. J Tropical Pediatrics 1998, 44: 73-76. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9604592 (accessed 14 October 2018).
1993: A random sample survey in South Western Nigeria tested children aged 6-71 months and their mothers. The study found 18 HIV-positive children. For these 18 children, only 1 mother was HIV-positive mother, while 17 were HIV-negative. Source: Omotade OO, Olaleye DO, Saliu L, et al. Human immunodeficiency seropositivity among mother-child pairs in Sole at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11885878 (accessed 14 October 2018).
1996-97: A hospital-based study in 1996-97 tested 132 mother-child pairs; 10 children were HIV-positive children of which only 2 had an HIV-positive mother. Only 2 of the 8 HIV-positive children with HIV-negative mothers. Mothers of HIV-positive children reported “multiple episodes of injection of drugs especially antimalarials and antibiotics outside government approved hospitals…” Source: Odaibo GN, Bamgbose G, Jegede AS, et al. Demographic and laboratory evidence of non sexual transmission of HIV in Nigeria. Int AIDS Conf 2004; 15: abstract no C12079). Available at: http://www.abstract-archive.org/ (search for Odiambo, 2004, c12079; accessed 14 October 2018).
2010: A study of children attending an outpatient clinic or emergency room in Kano found 22 of 163 children aged 2 months to 15 years to be HIV-positive. The study team proposed the “probably mode of transmission” was mother-to-child for 14 children, group circumcision for 5 children, unscreened blood for 1, and sex for 2 children. Source: Obiagwu PN, Hassan-Hanga F, Ibrahim M. Pediatric HIV in Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian J Clin Practice 2013; 16: 521-525. Available at: http://www.njcponline.com/article.asp?issn=1119-3077;year=2013;volume=16;issue=4;spage=521;epage=525;aulast=Obiagwu (accessed 14 October 2018).
Unexpected HIV infections in adults, 2001-02: A community-based study in South Western Nigeria tested 2,767 adults, of which 289 said they had never had any sexual partners. Seventeen (5.8%) of the 289 self-reported virgins were HIV-positive. Source: Odaibo GN, Bamgbose G, Jegede AS, et al. Demographic and laboratory evidence of non sexual transmission of HIV in Nigeria. Int AIDS Conf 2004; 15: abstract no C12079). Available at: http://www.abstract-archive.org/ (search for Odiambo, 2004, c12079; accessed 14 October 2018).