Bloodborne HIV: Don't Get Stuck!

Protect yourself from bloodborne HIV during healthcare and cosmetic services

Tanzania: cases and investigations

Unexpected infections in children:

1988: Tests of malnourished children admitted to Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, during 1988 identified 51 HIV positive children aged 3 to 88 months. Seven of 47 (14%) tested mothers were HIV-negative; all 7 children with unexpected infections had received blood transfusions. Source: Mgone CS, Mhalu FS, Shao JF, et al. Prevalence of HIV-1 infection and symptomatology of AIDS in severely malnourished children in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4: 910-913. Abstract available at: (accessed 13 January 2012).

1991-93: WHO’s Global Programme on AIDS arranged for hospitals to test children aged 6-59 months (1/2 to 5 years old) admitted to pediatric care and their mothers in 4 cities in Africa: Kigali, Rwanda; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Kampala, Uganda; and Lusaka, Zambia. The studies tested 5,593 child-mother pairs, of which 61 (1.1% of 5,593) children were HIV-positive with HIV-negative mothers. Reports from this study do not give any breakdown by country. The authors conclude (incredibly!): “The risk of nosocomial and non-perinatally acquired HIV infection appears low among these populations.” This shows a double-standard for Africa; if 1% of inpatient Europeans had unexpected HIV infections, such a conclusion would be unacceptable. Source: Hitimana D, Luo-Mutti C, Madraa B, et al. A multicentre matched case control study of possible nosocomial HIV-1 transmission in infants and children in developing countries. 9th Int Conf AIDS, Berlin 6-11 June 1993. Abstract no. WS-C13-2. 

Unexpected HIV infections in adolescents and adults: In a survey of young adults aged 15-24 years in Moshi rural district in 1995, 5.6% (8/141) of young men who did not report any lifetime sexual activity were HIV-positive vs. 4.8% (16/335) of young men who reported 1 or more lifetime sex partners. Among young women who did not report any lifetime sexual activity, 3.7% (6/163) were HIV-positive vs. 12.4% (45/364) of those who reported 1 or more lifetime partners. Source: Tengia-Kessy A, Msamanga GI, Moshiro CS. Assessment of behavioural risk factors associated with HIV infection among youth in Moshi rural district,Tanzania. East African Medical Journal 1998, 75: 528-532. Abstract available at: (accessed 26 January 2012).

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