Unexpected HIV in children
A 2015 random sample national survey tested adults and children aged 0-14 years for HIV. Focusing on children aged 0-4 years only, an estimated 6.5% (= 4 of 62) HIV positive children had mothers who tested HIV-negative. This percentage is calculated as follows: The study found 62 HIV-positive children (estimated from the report that 1.1% of 5,664 children tested were HIV-positive). Of these 62 children, 42 mother were HIV-positive (estimated from the report 6.4% of the children of 659 HIV-positive mothers were HIV-positive). An estimated 16 HIV-positive children had mothers who were not tested (estimated from the report 1.4% of the children of 1,154 untested mothers were HIV-positive). That leaves 4 (= 62 – 42 – 16) HIV-positive children aged 0-4 years with mothers who tested HIV-negative. Results are similar for children aged 5-14 years. Source: Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency and ICF Internatioinal. Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zimbabwe] and Macro International Inc. 2007. Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2015: Final Report. Rockville, Maryland, USA: Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) and ICF. 2016. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR322/FR322.pdf (accessed 8 January 2019).
Unexpected HIV infection in adolescents and adults
1998-2003: To study risks for HIV infection in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, researchers tested men and women during 1998-2000, then retested initially HIV-negative men and women 3 years later, 2001-2003) to see who got HIV. Women who reported no sex partners over 3 years got HIV at the rate of 1.3% per year (19 infections in 1,510 person-years of follow-up) compared to 1.7% per year for women who had one or more sex partners (94 infections in 5,673 person years of follow-up). Men who reported no sex partners over three years men got HIV at the rate of 0.9% per year (8 infections in 902 person years of follow-up) compared to 2.2% per year (88 infections in 3,994 person-years) for men with one or more sex partners over 3 years. Source: Lopman B, Nyamukapa C, Mushati P, et al. HIV incidence in 3 years of follow-up of a Zimbabwe cohort – 1998-2000 to 2001-03: contributions to proximate and underlying determinants to transmission. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 88-103. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793995/pdf/emss-33233.pdf (accessed 15 October 2018).
2001-02: A random sample national survey tested 1,807 young women aged 15-19 years for HIV infection. Out of the 192 who tested HIV-positive, 78 (41%) reported never having a sex partner. Source: Gavin L, Galavotti C, Dube H, et al. Factors associated with HIV infection in adolescent females in Zimbabwe. J Adolesc Health 2006: 39: 596.e11-18. Available at: https://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(06)00082-6/fulltext (accessed 15 October 2018).
2005: In a 2005 random sample household survey in Chimanimani District in Eastern Zimbabwe, 5% (9 of 180) of young adult men aged 15-24 years who said they were virgins were HIV-positive. Among young women, 3% (5 of 166) who said they were virgins were HIV-positive. Source: p 77 in: Gomo E, Rusakaniko S, Mashange W, et al. Household survey of HIV-prevalence and behavior in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe, 2005. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council, 2006. Available at: http://catalogue.safaids.net/sites/default/files/publications/Household%20Survey%20of%20HIV-Prevalence%20and%20Behaviour%20in%20Chimanimani.pdf (accessed 15 October 2018).
2005-06: A 2005-06 random sample national survey reported these results for young adults aged 15-24 years: Among young men who said they were virgins, 2.6% were HIV-positive vs. 4.2% for all young men. Among young women who said they were virgins, 3.6% were HIV-positive vs. 11.0% for all young women. Source: Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zimbabwe] and Macro International Inc. 2007. Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06. Calverton, Maryland: CSO and Macro International, Inc. Available at: http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR186/FR186.pdf (accessed 19 Janaury 2012).